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Writing abstracts for research papers College

You must refer to each table andor figure individually and in sequence (see ), and clearly indicate for the reader the key results that each conveys. For example, controls, treatments, what variable(s) were measured, how many samples were collected, replication, the final form of the data, etc. Organize the information to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the introduction, then narrow toward the more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your statement of purpose and rationale.

Establish the context of the work being reported. Foremost in your description should be the quantitative aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc. The first table you refer to is table 1, the next table 2 and so forth.

Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon the sequence of tables and figures. Provide a clear statement of the rationale for your approach to the problem studied. Therefore, enough key information (e.

This is the system we will use. . The key is to summarize (for the reader) what we knew about the specific problem you did your experiments or studies.

Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the methods. Authors if an instructor or other individual critiqued the draft prior to evaluation) and any that supported the research.

Bibliography sections are found in books and other literary writing, but not scientific journal-style papers. Some examples of material that might be put in an appendix (not an exhaustive list) explanation of formulas, either already known ones, or especially if you have invented some statistical or other mathematical procedures for data analysis. Is the average height of male students the same as female students in a pool of randomly selected biology majors you would first collect height data from large random samples of male and female students. Some of the newer search engines will actually send you alerts of new papers that cite particular articles of interest to you. Do not fall into the trap of thinking that results contrary to what you expected are necessarily bad data.


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Writing abstracts for research papers College

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Writing abstracts for research papers College A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah 6:8. Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information. Very frequently the experimental design and data collection procedures for an experiment cannot be separated and must be integrated together. Consider the following two examples this example highlights the trenddifference that the author wants the reader to focus the duration of exposure to running water had a pronounced effect on cumulative seed germination percentages (fig. Always report your results with parenthetical reference to the statistical conclusion that supports your finding (if statistical tests are being used in your course). You may want to identify certain types of equipment by vendor name and brand or category (e.
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    In scientific studies, the use of this word implies that a statistical test was employed to make a decision about the data in this case the test indicated a larger difference in mean heights than you would expect to get by chance alone. For eaxmple, if you testing for differences among groups, and you find a significant difference, to simply report that groups a and b were significantly different. The text of the results section should be crafted to follow this sequence and highlight the evidence needed to answer the questionshypotheses you investigated. When your paper includes more than one experiment, use describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings. This group showed the highest cumulative germination (84), with longer (5 d) or shorter (12 h) exposures producing smaller gains in germination when compared to the control group.

    Although you may read some general background references (encyclopedias, textbooks, lab manuals, style manuals, etc. You would then calculate the descriptive statistics for those samples (mean, sd, n, range, etc) and plot these numbers. An inoculating loop was used to transfer culture to the agar surface. Each appendix should contain different material. The structure of the introduction can be thought of as an inverted triangle - the broadest part at the top representing the most general information and focusing down to the specific problem you studied.

    Do not waste entire sentences restating your results if you need to remind the reader of the result to be discussed, use bridge sentences that relate the result to the interpretation the slow response of the lead-exposed neurons relative to controls suggests that. Make sure to although you might occasionally include in this section tables and figures which help explain something you are discussing, they must not contain new data (from your study) that should have been presented earlier. Abstract useful to someone who may to reference your work. In general, provide enough (how much, how long, when, etc. Each experiment or procedure should be presented as a unit, even if it was broken up over time. If, in your experiment, you received any significant help in thinking up, designing, or carrying out the work, or received materials from someone who did you a favor by supplying them, you must acknowledge their assistance and the service or material provided. When using a method described in another published source, you can save time and words by providing the to the source. The style in this section should read as if you were verbally describing the conduct of the experiment. Avoid repeatedly using a single sentence to relate a single action this results in very lengthy, wordy passages. Avoid using ambiguous terms to identify controls or treatments, or other study parameters that require specific identifiers to be clearly understood.

    The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.

    Writing an Education Research Paper - Boston College

    The following guide contains tips on writing a research paper in Education.
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    Cite, instead, articles that reported specific results relevant to your study. The scientific format may seem confusing for the beginning science writer due to its rigid which is so different from writing in the humanities. Write your abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly. For eaxmple, if you testing for differences among groups, and you find a significant difference, to simply report that groups a and b were significantly different. As you become more proficient you will most likely compose the abstract from scratch.

    This will usually follow your statement of purpose in the last paragraph of the introduction. The sections appear in a journal style paper in the following prescribed order each main section of the paper begins with a heading which should be when your paper reports on more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize the presentation Buy now Writing abstracts for research papers College

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    The results section should be that should be sequenced to present your key findings in a logical order. What literature should you look for in your review of what we know about the problem? - the journals that publish original research articles. A related sequence of actions can be combined into one sentence to improve clarity and readability this is a very long and wordy description of a common, simple procedure. If you are using a (new, revolutionary, never used before) technique or methodology, the merits of the new techniquemethod versus the previously used methods (plant, animal, human, etc. This website describes the style, content, and format associated with each section.

    The loop was moved lightly back and forth over the agar to spread the culture Writing abstracts for research papers College Buy now

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    An inoculating loop was used to transfer culture to the agar surface. Although usual style requirements (e. Use the active voice when possible, but much of it may require passive constructions. April 1994) and the exact location of the study area. In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the methods.

    For eaxmple, if you testing for differences among groups, and you find a significant difference, to simply report that groups a and b were significantly different. The transition into interpretive language can be a slippery slope. What did we know about it before i did this study? How will this study advance our knowledge? Use the active voice as much as possible Buy Writing abstracts for research papers College at a discount

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    Report the of differences ( difference, how many times, etc. The title is not a section, but it is necessary and important. If you carried out the work well, they are simply your results and need interpretation. Decide which format best shows the result and go with it. The above statements apply regardless of the complexity of the analysis you employ.

    Is the average height of male students the same as female students in a pool of randomly selected biology majors you would first collect height data from large random samples of male and female students. When your paper includes more than one experiment, use describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings Buy Online Writing abstracts for research papers College

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    Be sure to state the conclusions that can be drawn from your results in light of these considerations. For example, in the mouse behavior paper, the words would likely appear within the first one or two sentences of the introduction. Name or briefly describe the basic methodology used without going into excessive detail-be sure to indicate the key techniques used. The literature cited section gives an alphabetical listing (by first authors last name) of the references that you actually cited in the body of your paper. You must refer to each table andor figure individually and in sequence (see ), and clearly indicate for the reader the key results that each conveys.

    The judgment of what is general or specific is difficult at first, but with practice and reading of the scientific literature you will develop e firmer sense of your audience Buy Writing abstracts for research papers College Online at a discount

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    Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon the sequence of tables and figures. When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is not always necessary to explain the procedures (e. Why did you choose this kind of experiment or experimental design? What are the system? What advantages does it confer in answering the particular question(s) you are posing? Do not discuss here the actual ) your readers will be quite familiar with the usual techniques and approaches used in your field. Many important discoveries can be traced to bad data. If your parenthetical statistical information includes a p-value that indicates significance (usually when p 0.

    A majority of readers will find your paper via electronic database searches and those search engines key on words found in the title Writing abstracts for research papers College For Sale

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    This will usually follow your statement of purpose in the last paragraph of the introduction. Each experiment or procedure should be presented as a unit, even if it was broken up over time. Key results depend on your questions, they might include obvious trends, important differences, similarities, correlations, maximums, minimums, etc. You would then calculate the descriptive statistics for those samples (mean, sd, n, range, etc) and plot these numbers. For example, if you found that the mean height of male biology majors was significantly larger than that of female biology majors, you might report this result (in blue) and your statistical conclusion (shown in red) as follows males (180 For Sale Writing abstracts for research papers College

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    Begin your introduction by clearly identifying the subject area of interest. The experimental design and procedure are sometimes most efficiently presented as an integrated unit, because otherwise it would be difficult to split them up. Organize the information to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the introduction, then narrow toward the more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your statement of purpose and rationale. Many important discoveries can be traced to bad data. You instructor will tell you the level of analysis that is expected.

    For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Seedlings or mature plants? Characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims Sale Writing abstracts for research papers College

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